It is very clear from the Qur’an that nations that reject Prophets are destroyed by God Almighty. Although, rejecters f Issa (peace be upon him) claiming to be Muslim twist the Qur’an and take most of the things as metaphors, they go to literalism when it comes to this point and demand for clear and straightforward verses. These shall be presented to them.
[022:045] How many populations have We destroyed, which were given to wrong-doing? They tumbled down on their roofs. And how many wells are lying idle and neglected, and castles lofty and well-built?
Wrong-doers were destroyed. These wrong-doers were those who rejected the Prophets. God Almighty says in 22:44 that Prophet Moosa (peace be upon him) was rejected and the rejecters were destroyed. From this we see a clear rule of destruction of rejecters. A question was asked as to why the Jews were not destroyed? The answer is simple, because Issa (peace be upon him) did not die. He will return and before his death, rejecters of him would be destroyed. See next section for more details. God Almighty says that punishment is a promise in 22: 47 and it has been delayed (22:48).
[023:048] So they accused them of falsehood, and they became of those who were destroyed.
[023:051] O ye apostles! enjoy (all) things good and pure, and work righteousness: for I am well-acquainted with (all) that ye do.
[023:052] And verily this Brotherhood of yours is a single Brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher: therefore fear Me (and no other).
[023:053] But people have cut off their affair (of unity), between them, into sects: each party rejoices in that which is with itself.
[023:054] But leave them in their confused ignorance for a time.
[023:064] Until, when We seize in Punishment those of them who received the good things of this world, behold, they will groan in supplication!
[023:065] (It will be said): “Groan not in supplication this day: for ye shall certainly not be helped by Us.
[026:139] So they rejected the messenger and We destroyed them. In this, is a sign of course! But most of them do not believe.
Summary: From this we clearly see that those nations that rejected Prophets were destroyed. Wrath on some was delayed but it did come to them. The Jews rejected Prophet Issa (peace be upon him) but they have not been destroyed yet. They used to be God’s chosen people and they were given a chance till the return of the Prophet they rejected. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was also rejected and is still rejected by many of the people but they have not been destroyed! The answer to this point is in the Qur’an as well. The Qur’an says that the Prophet is for all mankind but most of them know not (34:28) and no nation/ town/ village etc is destroyed unless the message is conveyed to them clearly. Therefore, asking for their destruction is just injustice.
Destruction of Jews: The children of Israel created mischief on the land and they were punished twice by God Almighty through warrior nations. God Almighty says that if they create mischief again, then their punishment would be repeated again. The punishment prescribed for them is destruction through warrior nations (17:8). In present times, we see a lot of mischief spread by them and therefore, we can expect a warrior nation to destroy them. As explained in the section “Conflict and dominance before the Day of Judgment”, we know that the leader of that nation would be Issa (peace be upon him) and that warrior nation has been identified in the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (may upon him be mercy of Allah and peace).
The Qur’an is very clear on Prophet Issa (peace be upon him). It explains the past, present and future among other things and on this matter, it is not an exception.
[025:036] And We command: “Go ye both, to the people who have rejected our Signs:” And those (people) We destroyed with utter destruction.
[025:037] And the people of Noah,- when they rejected the apostles, We drowned them, and We made them as a Sign for mankind; and We have prepared for (all) wrong-doers a grievous Penalty;-
[025:038] As also ‘Ad and Thamud, and the Companions of the Rass, and many a generation between them.
[030:047] We did indeed send, before thee, apostles to their (respective) peoples, and they came to them with Clear Signs: then, to those who transgressed, We meted out Retribution: and it was due from Us to aid those who believed.
[032:021] And indeed We will make them taste of the Penalty of this (life) prior to the supreme Penalty, in order that they may (repent and) return.
The above verse states that a worldly punishment is promised before the final punishment on the Day of Judgment. 36:14-29 speaks of a nation destroyed after they rejected the third messenger sent to them. They were given chances for the first two times! This matches with the position of the Jews as well. The link above is a must see!